THE VITAL INGREDIENTS
Salt is an important ingredient in bread
making. In the dough, salt increases
water absorption, improves kneading,
strengthens the gluten development and
controls fermentation of the yeast which
results in improved loaf shape, crumb
structure, crust color, ﬂavor and keeping
qualities. As salt inhibits the rising of bread,
be accurate when measuring.
Fat adds ﬂavor and retains the moisture.
Vegetable oils such as safﬂower,
sunﬂower, canola, etc., can be used.
Butter or margarine can be substituted
for oil in recipes but may give a yellow
Yeast is used as the raising agent for
breads and requires liquid, sugar and
warmth to grow and rise. Dried yeast
has been used in the recipes in this
instruction book where appropriate.
Before using dried yeast always check
'best before' dates, as stale yeast will
prevent the bread from rising.
Water is used in most bread recipes. If
using water in cold climates or from the
refrigerator, allow water to come to room
temperature. Extremes of hot or cold water
will prevent the yeast activating.
Eggs can be used in some bread recipes
and provide liquid, aid rising and increase
the nutritional value of the bread. They add
ﬂavor and softness to the crumb and are
usually used in sweeter types of bread.
Other ingredients such as fruit, nuts,
chocolate chips, etc., required to
remain whole in the baked bread, should
be suspended in the dough. These
ingredients should be gradually added
during kneading and before the dough
rises for the ﬁrst time.
FOR CAKE AND PASTRY MAKING
Flour, such as plain, self raising and
wholemeal, used for cake and pastry
making should be lower in protein (gluten)
than ﬂour used for bread making.
Plain ﬂour has a lower protein (gluten)
content and gives baked products, such
as cakes, mufﬁns, pastries, scones and
pancakes, a softer texture.
Self–raising ﬂour is a blend of plain ﬂour
and raising agents such as baking powder.
Self raising ﬂour can be used in recipes to
replace plain ﬂour and baking powder. To
make 1 cup self-raising ﬂour sift together
1 cup plain ﬂour and 2 teaspoons baking
Wholemeal ﬂour contains more parts of
the whole wheat grain — ﬂour, bran and
wheat germ — and can be used in mufﬁns,
breads and pie cases but will have a
Corn ﬂour is made from maize (corn) and
is used in some baked products to give
a ﬁner texture and can also be used as a
starch to thicken sauces and desserts.
Rice ﬂour is derived from rice and is used
to give a ﬁner texture in baked products
such as shortbread biscuits.
Baking powder is a mixture of cream of
tartar and bicarbonate of soda and is used
as a raising agent in baking.
Bicarbonate of soda also known as
baking soda is an ingredient in baking
powder and can be used as an additional
raising agent or to darken some baked
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